Abdominal CT Scan Articles

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm   Adrenal   Biliary System   Biopsy Information   Bladder   Bowel (Colon)   Bowel (Small Bowel)   Budd-Chiari   Chemotherapy Induced Toxicity   CT Angiography   Dual Energy CT Scan   Enterography   Gallbladder   General   GI Bleed   Hernias   Inferior Vena Cava   IV Contrast   Kidney   Liver   Mesentery   Neuroendocrine Tumors   Ovary   Pancreas   Pelvis   Portal Vein   Prostate   Radiation Safety   Retroperitoneum   Seminal Vesicles   Stomach   Transplantation   Trauma


Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

ENDOLEAKS after AAA repair

·         Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Nonenhanced Volumetric CT for Follow-up http://radiology.rsna.org/content/253/1/253.full

·         Endoleaks After Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Management Strategies According to CT Findings http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/192/4/W178

·         Imaging Techniques for Detection and Management of Endoleaks after Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/243/3/641

·         Type II Endoleak after Endoaortic Graft Implantation: Diagnosis with Helical CT Arteriography http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/240/3/885

AAA Rupture & Impending Rupture

·         Spectrum of CT Findings in Rupture and Impending Rupture of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/27/2/497



·         Adrenal Imaging: Why, When, What, and How? Part 1. Why and When to Image? AJR 2010

·         Adrenal Imaging with Multidetector CT: Evidence-based Protocol Optimization & Interpretative Practice Radiographics 2009

·         Adrenal Mass Imaging with Multidetector CT: Pathologic Conditions, Pearls, and Pitfalls Radiographics 2009

·         Incidental Adrenal Lesions: Principles, Techniques, and Algorithms for Imaging Characterization Radiology 2008

·         Low-Density Pheochromocytoma on CT: A Mimicker of Adrenal Adenoma AJR 2003

·         The Incidental Indeterminate Adrenal Mass on CT (> 10 H) in Patients Without Cancer: Is Further Imaging Necessary? Follow-Up of 321 Consecutive Indeterminate Adrenal Masses AJR 2007

·         The Incidentally Discovered Adrenal Mass N Engl J Med 2007

Primary Aldosteronism

·         Role of Radiology in the Management of Primary Aldosteronism RadioGraphics 2007

Biliary System

Ampula of Vater

·         CT Evaluation of the Bulging Papilla with Endoscopic Correlation http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/27/4/1023

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

·         Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Clinical, Pathologic, and Helical CT Findings in 53 Patients http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/220/2/329

Biopsy Information

·         Coagulation Concepts Update http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/193/6/1656


·         Imaging Appearance of Granulomatous Disease After Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Treatment of Bladder Carcinoma http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/192/6/1494

Bowel (Appendix)

CT Scan

·         Beyond Appendicitis: Common and Uncommon Gastrointestinal Causes of Right Lower Quadrant Abdominal Pain at Multidetector CT Radiographics July 2011

·         Right Lower Quadrant Pain: Value of the Nonvisualized Appendix in Patients at Multidetector CT Radiology October 2006


·         MR Imaging of the Acute Abdomen and Pelvis: Acute Appendicitis and Beyond Radiographics September 2007

Bowel (Colon)

Bowel Ischemia

·         CT of Acute Bowel Ischemia http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/226/3/635

·         CT Diagnosis of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia from Various Causes http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/192/2/408

·         Ischemic Colitis http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic180.htm

à         Colonic infarction tends to occur in 2 watershed territories; (1) the splenic flexure, which is the watershed territory between the SMA and IMA blood supply, and (2) the distal sigmoid colon, which forms the watershed area between the IMA and hypogastric artery supply.

·         Ischemic Colitis: CT Evaluation of 54 Cases http://radiology.rsna.org/content/211/2/381.full

à         Segments commonly affected by ischemic colitis are the junction between the distribution of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries near the splenic flexure (Griffith point) and the anastomotic plexus between the inferior mesenteric artery distribution and the hypogastric vascular supply (point of Sudeck) at the rectosigmoid junction. In patients with colonic obstruction, the proximal dilatation with increased intraluminal pressure and reduced mucosal blood flow may be responsible for the development of anoxia.


·         CT Evaluation of the Colon: Inflammatory Disease http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/20/2/399

Epiploic Appendagitis

·         Epiploic Appendagitis: An Entity Frequently Unknown to Clinicians—Diagnostic Imaging, Pitfalls, and Look-Alikes http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/193/5/1243

GIST Tumors

·         Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Role of CT in Diagnosis & in Response Evaluation & Surveillance after Treatment with Imatinib Radiographics March 2006

·         Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: Radiologic Features with Pathologic Correlation Radiographics March 2003

·         Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) Clinical Radiology 2004


·         Colonoscopy Findings in End-Stage Liver Disease Patients with Incidental CT Colonic Wall ThickeningPneumatosis Intestinalis http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/189/5/1112

·         Pneumatosis Intestinalis in the Adult: Benign to Life-Threatening Causes http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/188/6/1604

Post Surgery

·         Taxonomy and Imaging Spectrum of Small Bowel Obstruction After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/194/1/120

Pseudomembranous Colitis

·         Pseudomembranous Colitis: Spectrum of Imaging Findings with Clinical and Pathologic Correlation http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/19/4/887

Bowel (Small Bowel)

Celiac Disease

·         CT Findings in Adult Celiac Disease Radiographics July 2011


·         Small-Bowel Complications of Major Gastrointestinal Tract Surgery http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/185/3/671

Small Bowel Obstruction

·         Frequency and Relevance of the "Small-Bowel Feces" Sign on CT in Patients with Small-Bowel Obstruction AJR November 2004

·         Small Bowel Obstruction: What to Look For Radiographics March 2009

à         Multidetector CT can provide answers to specific questions that have a major effect on treatment including...

o   Is the small bowel obstructed?

o   What is the grade of severity of the obstruction?

o   Where is the transition point?

o   What is the cause of the obstruction?

o   Are there any associated complications?

·         The Small-Bowel Feces Sign Radiology November 2002

·         Utility of CT Whirl Sign in Guiding Management of Small-Bowel Obstruction AJR September 2008

Budd Chiari

·         Budd-Chiari Syndrome: Spectrum of Imaging Findings http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/188/2/W168

Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity

·         CT Findings of Chemotherapy-induced Toxicity: What Radiologists Need to Know about the Clinical & Radiologic Manifestations of Chemotherapy Toxicity


Free Flap Breast Reconstruction

·         CT Angiography of Inferior Epigastric and Gluteal Perforating Arteries before Free Flap Breast Reconstruction Radiographics September 2011

·         Planning Breast Reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforating Vessels: Multidetector CT Angiography versus Color Doppler US Radiology June 2010

Dual-Energy CT Scan

·         Dual-Energy Multidetector CT: How Does It Work, What Can It Tell Us, and When Can We Use It in Abdominopelvic Imaging? (Radiographics 2010)


·         CT Enterography: Principles, Trends, and Interpretation of Findings



·         CT Differentiation of Adenomyomatosis and Gallbladder Cancer http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/189/1/62


·         Lessons Learned From Quality Assurance: Errors in the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis on US & CT. AJR March 2011 vol. 196 no. 3 597-604

Wall Thickening

·         Diffuse Gallbladder Wall Thickening: Differential Diagnosis http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/188/2/495


·         Foreign Objects Encountered in the Abdominal Cavity at CT Radiographics March 2011

·         Patterns of Fat Stranding AJR July 2011

GI Bleed

·         Noninvasive Evaluation of Active Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Comparison Between Contrast-Enhanced MDCT and 99mTc-Labeled RBC Scintigraphy http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/191/4/1107


Abdominal Wall Hernias

·         Abdominal hernias: CT findings AJR June 1995

·         Abdominal Wall Hernias: Imaging Features, Complications, and Diagnostic Pitfalls at Multi–Detector Row CT Radiographics November 2005

Inguinal Hernias

·         Diagnosis of Inguinal Region Hernias with Axial CT: The Lateral Crescent Sign and Other Key Findings Radiographics March 2011

·         Differentiation of Femoral Versus Inguinal Hernia: CT Findings AJR August 2007

·         Imaging of Groin Masses: Inguinal Anatomy and Pathologic Conditions Revisited Radiographics October 2001

·         The Inguinal Canal: Anatomy and Imaging Features of Common and Uncommon Masses Radiographics May 2008

·         Multitechnique Imaging Findings of Prolene Plug Hernia Repair AJR 2010

·         Review of inguinal region hernias on MDCT: A vascular roadmap Applied Radiology April 2011

Internal Hernias

·         CT of Internal Hernias Radiographics July 2005

·         Review of Internal Hernias: Radiographic and Clinical Findings AJR March 2006

Inferior Vena Cava

·         Inferior vena cava filters: A contemporary review Applied Radiology March 2011

IV Contrast

Contrast Extravasation

·         Frequency, Management, and Outcome of Extravasation of Nonionic Iodinated Contrast Medium in 69,657 Intravenous Injections Radiology April 2007

Contrast Reaction Treatment

·         Use of IV Epinephrine for Treatment of Patients with Contrast Reactions: Lessons Learned from a 5-Year Experience AJR February 2009

·         Survey of Radiologists' Knowledge Regarding the Management of Severe Contrast Material–induced Allergic Reactions Radiology June 2009


·         Frequency of Serum Creatinine Changes in the Absence of Iodinated Contrast Material: Implications for Studies of Contrast Nephrotoxicity http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/191/2/376

Enhancement Optimization

·         Intraindividual Comparison of Contrast Media Concentrations for Combined Abdominal and Thoracic MDCT http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/191/1/145

Iso-osmolar Compared with Nonionic Low-osmolar Contrast Media

·         Nephrotoxicity of Iso-osmolar Iodixanol Compared with Nonionic Low-osmolar Contrast Media: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/250/1/68

Screening for Renal Disease

·         Identifying Outpatients with Renal Insufficiency before Contrast-enhanced CT by Using Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates versus Serum Creatinine Levels http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/248/1/106

·         Reducing the Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Perspective on the Controversies http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/192/6/1544



·         Small, asymptomatic angiomyolipomas of the kidney http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/reprint/154/1/7

Cystic Renal Masses

·         A Practical Approach to the Cystic Renal Mass http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/24/suppl_1/S101

·         Calcification in Cystic Renal Masses: Is It Important in Diagnosis? http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/226/1/47

·         Can High-Attenuation Renal Cysts Be Differentiated from Renal Cell Carcinoma at Unenhanced CT? http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/243/2/445

·         Cystic renal masses: Ignore, Follow, Excise http://www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/44d1045b472df


·         Segmental Enhancement Inversion at Biphasic Multidetector CT: Characteristic Finding of Small Renal Oncocytoma http://radiology.rsna.org/content/252/2/441.full


·         Pyelonephritis: Radiologic-Pathologic Review http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/28/1/255

Solid Renal Masses

·         Common and Uncommon Histologic Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Imaging Spectrum with Pathologic Correlation http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/26/6/1795

·         Differentiation of Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma on Helical CT Scans http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/178/6/1499

·         How I Do It: Evaluating Renal Masses http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/236/2/441

·         How Not to Miss or Mischaracterize a Renal Cell Carcinoma: Protocols, Pearls, and Pitfalls AJR April 2010

·         Hyperattenuating Renal Masses: Etiologies, Pathogenesis, and Imaging Evaluation http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/27/4/1131

·         Morphologic typing of papillary renal cell carcinoma: Comparison of growth kinetics and patient survival in 66 cases Human Pathology June 2001


·         Kidney and Urinary Tract Imaging: Triple-Bolus Multidetector CT Urography as a One-Stop Shop—Protocol Design, Opacification, and Image Quality Analysis http://radiology.rsna.org/content/255/2/508.full

·         New and Evolving Concepts in the Imaging and Management of Urolithiasis: Urologists’ Perspective http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/30/3/603.full

Transitional Cell Neoplasm

·         Transitional Cell Neoplasm of the Upper Urinary Tract: Evaluation with MDCT http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/191/2/416


·         Multidetector CT of Living Renal Donors: Lessons Learned from Surgeons (Radiographics 2010)


·         Kidney in Danger: CT Findings of Blunt and Penetrating Renal Trauma http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/29/7/2033.full


Focal Liver Lesions

·         Transient Homogeneously Enhancing Hepatic Masses: Can Size Predict Benignity? http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/190/2/300

Liver Ablation Therapy

·         Review article- Liver ablation therapy http://bjr.birjournals.org/cgi/content/full/77/921/713

·         Yttrium-90 Microsphere Therapy for Hepatic Malignancy: Devices, Indications, Technical Considerations, and Potential Complications http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/25/suppl_1/S41

Liver Incidentalomas

·         http://www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/45a5e818c709d


·         Unusual Hemodynamics and Pseudolesions of the Noncirrhotic Liver at CT Radiographics October 2001 21:suppl 1 S81-S96


·         Complications of Liver Transplantation: Multimodality Imaging Approach http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/27/5/1401

·         Does Variant Hepatic Artery Anatomy in a Liver Transplant Recipient Increase the Risk of Hepatic Artery Complications After Transplantation? http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/183/6/1577

·         Postoperative Imaging in Liver Transplantation: What Radiologists Should Know http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/30/2/339.full



·         Mesenteric Neoplasms: CT Appearances of Primary and Secondary Tumors and Differential Diagnosis Radiographics March 2003

·         Nonvascular Mesenteric Disease: Utility of Multidetector CT with 3D Volume Rendering Radiographics May 2009

Mesenteric Lymphoma

·         Diagnosis Please Case 107: Lymphoma of the Mesentery http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/242/2/628

Mesenteric Panniculitis

·         CT Evaluation of Mesenteric Panniculitis http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/174/2/427

Misty Mesentery

·         The Misty Mesentery on CT: DifferentialDiagnosis  http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/reprint/167/1/61

Neuroendocrine Tumors


·         Anatomic and Functional Imaging of Metastatic Carcinoid Tumors Radiographics March 2007

·         Gastrointestinal Carcinoids: Imaging Features with Clinicopathologic Comparison Radiographics January 2007


·         Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Role of Imaging in Diagnosis and Management Radiology January 2013

·         Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Classification, Pathologic Basis, and Imaging Features Radiographics November 2007



·         Clinical Syndromes Associated with Ovarian Neoplasms: A Comprehensive Review Radiographics 2010


·         CT Features of Adnexal Torsion http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/189/1/124


Annular Pancreas

·         Annular Pancreas in Adults AJR August 2009

à         Nine of 24 (37.5%) cases of annular pancreas detected with CT or MRI did not have a radiologically complete ring of pancreatic tissue surrounding the second part of the duodenum. Three of the nine patients (33%) with radiologically incomplete annular pancreas and six of the 15 patients (40%) with complete annular pancreas had gastric outlet obstruction. The presence of pancreatic tissue posterolateral to the second part of the duodenum had a high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (100%) for the presence of annular pancreas. The rates of pancreas divisum (37%) and chronic pancreatitis (48%) were high in this cohort.

à         Annular pancreas can be diagnosed without the finding of a radiologically complete ring of pancreatic tissue. A crocodile jaw configuration of pancreatic tissue is suggestive of the presence of annular pancreas.

à         Comparison of findings in patients with annular pancreas and controls with normal pancreas. Values are numbers of patients.

Description:   Fig. 5

Autoimmune Pancreatitis

·         Autoimmune Pancreatitis Associated with Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Fibrosis http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/181/4/993

·         Autoimmune Pancreatitis: CT Patterns and Their Changes after Steroid Treatment http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/247/2/435

·         Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Disease Evolution, Staging, Response Assessment, and CT Features That Predict Response to Corticosteroid Therapy http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/250/1/118

·         Autoimmune Pancreatitis: Imaging Features http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/233/2/345

·         Dual-Phase CT of Autoimmune Pancreatitis: A Multireader Study http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/190/2/280

·         Renal Involvement in Patients with Autoimmune Pancreatitis: CT and MR Imaging Findings http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/242/3/791

Cystic Lesions

·         Cystic Pancreatic Lesions: A Simple Imaging-based Classification System for Guiding Management http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/25/6/1471

·         Imaging Diagnosis of Cystic Pancreatic Lesions: Pseudocyst versus Nonpseudocyst http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/25/3/671

·         Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas: Can Benign Lesions Be Differentiated from Malignant Lesions with Multidetector CT? http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/25/6/1451

·         Macrocystic neoplasms of the pancreas: CT differentiation of serous oligocystic adenoma from mucinous cystadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumor http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/187/5/1192

·         Relative Accuracy of CT and MRI for Characterization of Cystic Pancreatic Masses http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/189/3/657

·         CT of Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas and Mimicking Masses http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/190/2/406

Pancreatic Neoplasm

·         CT Assessment of Resectability The Radiology Assistant

·         Small (≤3 cm) Solid Pseudopapillary Tumors of the Pancreas at Multiphasic Multidetector CT Radiology 2010


·         Disconnection of the Pancreatic Duct: An Important But Overlooked Complication of Severe Acute Pancreatitis http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/27/5/1389

·         MDCT of Acute Mild (Nonnecrotizing) Pancreatitis: Abdominal Complications and Fate of Fluid Collections http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/190/3/643

Pancreatoduodenal Groove

·         MRI Features of Groove Pancreatitis http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/189/1/73

·         Normal Anatomy and Disease Processes of the Pancreatoduodenal Groove: Imaging Features http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/183/3/839?eaf


·         Spectrum of Imaging Findings After Pancreas Transplantation with Enteric Exocrine Drainage: Part 1, Posttransplantation Anatomy AJR April 2004

·         Spectrum of Imaging Findings After Pancreas Transplantation with Enteric Exocrine Drainage: Part 2, Posttransplantation Complications AJR April 2004


·         Added Value of Multiplanar Reformation in the Multidetector CT Evaluation of the Female Pelvis: A Pictorial Review http://radiographics.rsna.org/content/29/7/1987.full

Portal Vein

·         Congenital and Acquired Anomalies of the Portal Venous System http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/22/1/141


·         Challenges in Clinical Prostate Cancer: Role of Imaging http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/192/6/1455

·         Endorectal MRI of Prostatic and Periprostatic Cystic Lesions and Their Mimics

Radiation Safety

·         CT Radiation Dose: What Can You Do Right Now in Your Practice? AJR March 2011 vol. 196 no. 3 619-625

·         Cumulative Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk Estimates in Emergency Department Patients Undergoing Repeat or Multiple CT

·         Effective Doses in Radiology and Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine: A Catalog

·         Imaging in Pregnant Patients: Examination Appropriateness (Radiographics 2010)

·         Projected Cancer Risks From Computed Tomographic Scans Performed in the United States in 2007

·         Radiation Dose Associated With Common Computed Tomography Examinations and the Associated Lifetime Attributable Risk of Cancer

·         Radiation Doses from Small-Bowel Follow-Through and Abdominopelvic MDCT in Crohn's Disease

·         Radiation Dose to the Fetus for Pregnant Patients Undergoing Multidetector CT Imaging: Monte Carlo Simulations Estimating Fetal Dose for a Range of Gestational Age and Patient Size Oct 2008


·         Fat-containing Lesions of the Retroperitoneum: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/29/1/261

·         Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Review of Clinical Features and Imaging Findings http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/191/2/423

Seminal Vesicles

·         CT and MRI of Congenital Anomalies of the Seminal Vesicles http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/189/1/130


·         Radiology of the Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Procedure: Conceptualization and Precise Interpretation of Results Radiographics Sept 2006


Stem Cell

·         CT of Gastrointestinal Complications Associated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/190/3/712

·         Imaging Evaluation of Pulmonary and Abdominal Complications Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/radiographics;25/2/305



·         Acute Traumatic Aortic Injury: Imaging Evaluation and Management http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/248/3/748

Blunt Abdominal Trauma

·         Frequency and Importance of Small Amount of Isolated Pelvic Free Fluid Detected with Multidetector CT in Male Patients with Blunt Trauma Radiology September 2010

·         Multi-detector row CT imaging of blunt abdominal trauma Seminars in US, CT, & MRI April 2004


·         Blunt Splenic Trauma: Delayed-Phase CT for Differentiation of Active Hemorrhage from Contained Vascular Injury in Patients http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/243/1/88